Correspondence between Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him) and King of Abyssinia

  • Zuhdija Hasanović, prof.dr.


Allah (s.w.t.) in many places in the Qur’an has mentioned that His Prophet (p.b.u.h.) did not use letters (he is ummiyy) even though, Prophet Muhammed (p.b.u.h) felt the importance of the written word and the written communication. He was sending letters to his high-ranking officials in far away districts, as well as to the rulers of the neighbouring countries. There are reliable historical documents, which report about Prophet’s (p.b.u.h.) letters, sent before Hijra. But the main activity in this respect started after signing the peace accord with the idolaters of Mecca on Hudaybiya six years after Hijra. Historians have recorded that during the lifetime of Prophet Muhammed (p.b.u.h) he has sent 44 different letters. If we count all the other written documents its number comes to 185. Sources say that Prophet Muhammed had sent three different letters to the King of Abyssinia.

From content of the letter we can see the following:

  • Prophet’s letter started with invocation ‘Bismillah’ and ended with stamp of the Messanger on which it was inscribed ‘Muhammad Rasulullah’;
  • Letters were short, with ‘Bismillah’ greetings and only the call to accept Islam, very often that call being followed by a Qur’anic
  • Letters, which Prophet Muhammed sent to the rulers of the neighbouring countries, in the best way, talks about the universal characteristics of
  • Prophet Muhammed (p.b.u.h.) was not afraid of strong political, economical and millitary power of Persia and To their rulers as well as to the rulers of other neighboring countries the Prophet (p.b.u.h.), in a very brave and convincing way, presented the need for the change of their way of life and need to accept Islam.
  • The companions of the Prophet Muhammad suggested to him that he needs to stamp on Acceptance of that shows flexibility of Islam, respects of other traditions and custom and respects of other cultures and religions if those are not against Islamic teachings.
  • When Prophet Muhammed talks about Isa (a.s.), who was born without father, he mentioned that Adem (a.s.) was also born without father (and mother) He emphasized that fact and the fact that nobody calls Adem (a.s.) as a Son of God.

According to available sources it is clear that Prophet Muhammed (p.b.u.h) had correspondence with the ruler of Abyssinie, even though there is mystery about the number of letters, their contents, and dates of sending. Besides, sources show that the Prophet Muhammad had different treatment of Ashami ibni Ebdzuri compared with other rulers of neighboring countries. Ashami was very kind in correspondence with Prophet Muhammed. Personally he wished to accept Islam and he did so.