A new detail about Muhammed ef. Prozarac and his work

  • Ahmed Mehmedović


Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Muhjuddin al-Pruzuri (Prozarac), born in Prozor, in the first half of the 18 century, died after 1812. During his lifetime he was mufti, muderris, muvekkit, an author of one of the works on how to govern a country. His surname Skejo was recorded next to his name. But he himself mostly used Al-Bosnevi al Prozori as a sign. After finishing elementary school in Bosnia he went to study in Istanbul. Most probably he followed the Zekerijjah efendi Sani madresa (high school) around year the 1780, because he copied a few manuscripts from astronomy for his own use at the about the same time. This fact shows us his affinity to astronomy and his extraordinary knowledge in three oriental languages. He was an excellent calligraphy (ta’lik) whose works give us more detail about the life of this eloquent Bosnian scholar.

It is hard to believe that Muhammad Prozorac did not leave any of his works behind or at least a synthesis from astronomy, since he seriously dealt with it and was an official muvekkit of Jajce kadiluk. We hope that some day his work from this field will be discovered and give more light on the Bosnian contribution to the field of astronomy as an unavoidable science of Islamic cultural heritage. He studied law, and after finishing his schooling became a kadi (judge). In the year 1782, Muhammad Prozorac was appointed as a kadi in Ejjub el-Ensary, one of the most prestigious parts in Istanbul. When he returned to Bosnia he was working as a kadi in many places and lastly in Prusac where he was a mufti and muderis. From notes in one of his transcribed works on astronomy it became known that he was a muvekkit in Jajce. These details change our perspective and knowledge about astronomy on the local level and muvekkithanama in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Namely, it became clear that in Bosnia and Herzegovina, on the level of kadiluk, muvekkithane and muvekkit existed in the 18 century not only in the big center like Sarajevo but in other smaller as well. These detail were accessible only after the publication of the 12th volume of the Catalogue of Arabic, Turkish, Persian and Bosnian manuscript in the Ghazi Husrev- bey Library by the director of the Library Mustafa Jahic. This Catalogue presents manuscripts from the field of medicine, pharmacy, mathematics, astronomy and astrology.

The only known work of Muhammad Prozorac was not only from the field of astronomy but also from the field of politics, precisely, from the field of governing a country: Minhadz an-nizam fi din al-Islam A guide about organization of the country in Islam. It was written in the year 1801/02 and sent to Sultan Đ reformer Selim III and Sheykh-l-Islam Hulusuj. Apart from short preface, work is composed of the introduction, three chapters and conclusion. Introduction talks about freedom of hu- man will, type of human work and responsibility for them. The first chapter talks about dogmatic, basic truly belief, believe in Allah (s.w.) angels, Revealed Books, Prophets, Day after and God’s Determination, definition of concepts such as: iman, Islam, din, seri’at and millet, all according with teaching of ehli-sunnah.

The second chapter deals with religiousness and God-fearing (at- takva). The third chapter is devoted to justice. Muhammad Prozorac considered that society, which does not practice justice for sure, will be perished. He holds lover governing officers and justice departments the most responsible for difficulties in one country. As socially and politically aware author Muhammad Prozorac asked for modest taxation and policy and for bearable attitude towards people. Some of researchers deny all originality in the Prozorac work, but Smail Balic considered that new ideas exist in his work. At least the part which talks about situation in Bosnia in that time is worth. Unfortunately the work Minhadz an-nizam fi din al-islam from the Orijental Institute was destroyed in 1993 in a fire during the war together with many other scientific works.

How to Cite
Mehmedović, A. (2005). A new detail about Muhammed ef. Prozarac and his work. Anali Gazi Husrev-Begove Biblioteke, 13(23-24), 85-92. Retrieved from https://www.anali-ghb.com/index.php/aghb/article/view/132