Introduction of Secular Civil Code into Egypt: National Civil Code (Qānūn al-Madanī al-Ahlī) of 1883.
Modern history of Muslim countries may be traced as of beginning of 19th century. The changes that occurred at that time originated from various sources and are directly caused by intrusion of Napoleon Bonaparte into Egypt. The need for resistance to an ongoing invasion forced the government to accept the reform of the military in the first place although it shall later be revealed that there are weaknesses of the whole system that governed the state. In order to make the military reform successful, changes had to be made to the economic system of the country, industrialization, banking system, public works.
All of that required changes to the legal system and adaptation to new conditions and new institutions. Ultimately, it led to a conclusion that the state must be given a new role in management of businesses in order to protect society and preserve independence. Egypt, like other countries as well, initiated reforms that had an effect on legal system and codification of civil law. The purpose of this work is to discuss causes and results of the reform conducted by the Egyptian government during the 19th century.